Search the XCEPT
content database.

Armenak Tokmajyan

Carnegie Middle East Center

Armenak Tokmajyan is a nonresident scholar at the Carnegie Middle East Center. His research focuses on borders and conflict, Syrian refugees, and local intermediaries in Syria.  He holds a Master of Research Degree in Peace, Mediation and Conflict Research from the University of Tampere (Finland). Armenak’s most recent work includes “How Southern Syria Has Been Transformed to a Regional Powder Keg” (Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, July 2020), “Syrian Refugees in Lebanon: Between Return and a Hard Place” (International Crisis Group report, February 2020), “Politics of Rural Notables” a book chapter in an edited book entitled Local Intermediaries in post-2011 Syria: Transformation and Continuity (Published by Friedrich-Ebert- Stiftung, Beirut, June 2019). “Hezbollah’s Intervention in Syria: Religious Obligation or Political Choice?” (Peer-reviewed Journal of Approaching Religion Vol. 4 (2), December 2014). “Militarization of the Syrian Revolution: Was this the Wrong Choice?” (Peer-reviewed Journal of Aggression, Conflict and Peace Research Vol. 7 (2), March 2015). 

Armenak is a Research Lead for XCEPT at the the Carnegie Middle East Center. He leads research for the X-Border Local Research Network on the Syrian borders.

Armenak Tokmajyan’s XCEPT research


25th January 2023

Jordan’s Experiences Highlight the Limitations of Renewed Ti...

In recent days, Jordan has led the way in Arab countries’ rapprochement with Syria. But Amman’s experience shows that, without regional coordination,...


10th August 2022

Border Nation: The Reshaping of the Syrian-Turkish Borderlan...

After a decade of civil war, Syria’s border with Turkey is divided. Yet long-term stability will require a peace agreement that treats the border as a...


25th August 2021

Unfinished Business in Daraa

Regime forces are staging a comeback in southern Syria, and this time Russia may be helping matters.


2nd June 2021

How the Small Town of Sarmada Became Syria’s Gateway to the ...

Idlib is heavily dependent on the delivery of aid, the disruption of which would almost surely create a humanitarian crisis.


26th April 2021

Sailors Without a Sea

Jordan’s bahhara have suffered from a closed border with Syria, but efforts to resume informal trade ties continue.


19th April 2021

Thwarting Jordan’s Bahhara Trade With Syria Risks Social Unr...

As border crossings reopen, Jordanian authorities might have to tolerate a degree of informal petty trade with Syria to revive Ramtha’s economy and pr...


22nd October 2020

Permission to Kill

The rules of what is deemed acceptable political behavior are constantly shifting in Syria, with perilous consequences.


27th January 2020

An Art Unto Itself

In conducting research in the Middle East, don’t ignore the importance of the personal.


Sign up to the XCEPT newsletter